Approaches must also recognize that economic empowerment is intertwined with social and political empowerment.
Taking into account the underlying social and cultural factors that limit women's ability to interact with and benefit from markets, such as unpaid and inequitably distributed domestic and care work, limited mobility, and the prevalence of sexual and gender-based violence, is essential if initiatives are to address the full range of constraints to women's economic empowerment.
Higher levels of gender equality are also associated with lower rates of poverty and food insecurity in the general population, higher standing in the Human Development Index, and less environmental degradation.
The MMLA, by its terms, provides maternity leave to female employees only.
This means that the MCAD is unable to take jurisdiction over claims in which male employees are seeking eight weeks of unpaid paternity leave.
Achieving sustainable economic growth requires the talents, creativity, and entrepreneurial vigour of an entire population.
Women comprise more than 40 percent of the global workforce, make up one third of formal business owners, and are responsible for or influence as much as 80 percent of consumer spending.
It is unlawful practice "for the commonwealth and any of its boards, departments and commissions to deny vacation credit to any female employee for the fiscal year during which she is absent due to a maternity leave taken in accordance with [the MMLA] or to impose any other penalty as a result of a maternity leave of absence." G.
Department of Labor Regulations: The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 C. Those utilizing these Guidelines should note that the words "handicap" and "handicapped" are utilized in the statutes and regulations governing disability discrimination in employment. Additional protections apply for employees of the Commonwealth.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court has not as of the date of these Guidelines considered whether the MMLA's requirement of leave for females only violates the Massachusetts Equal Rights Amendment, Article CVI of the Massachusetts Constitution.
Given the possibility of a successful challenge to the constitutionality of the MMLA, employers should consider providing leave to all members of their workforce who otherwise meet the eligibility requirements of the MMLA. These guidelines will not answer every question concerning application of the laws regarding maternity leave.
Increasing women's income and their control over family spending can lead to improvements in child nutrition, health, and education, and work to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty.
As women are a majority of the poor, improving their economic circumstances can also directly reduce female poverty and improve women's well being.
There is a growing understanding that addressing the constraints to women's economic empowerment is fundamental to lasting, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth, poverty reduction, and food security, and to the achievement of gender equality. Economic empowerment has been defined in several ways by various researchers and organizations.